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Wednesday, August 25, 2021 | History

3 edition of Effect of heavy late-fall precipitation on runoff from a chaparral watershed found in the catalog.

Effect of heavy late-fall precipitation on runoff from a chaparral watershed

Paul A. Ingebo

Effect of heavy late-fall precipitation on runoff from a chaparral watershed

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Published by Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in Fort Collins, Colo .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Runoff -- Arizona,
  • Rain and rainfall -- Arizona,
  • Watersheds -- Arizona

  • Edition Notes

    StatementPaul A. Ingebo.
    SeriesResearch note RM -- 132.
    ContributionsRocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (Fort Collins, Colo.)
    The Physical Object
    Pagination1 sheet :
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL17619801M
    OCLC/WorldCa32352249

    More Information - Runoff Basics. Runoff is that portion of precipitation that flows over land surfaces toward larger bodies of water. Before runoff can occur, rainfall must satisfy the immediate demands of infiltration, evaporation, interception, surface storage, surface detention and/or channel detention. which will result in changes in land use and land cover that are spread unevenly across the country. Urban land covers are projected to increase in the lower 48 states by 73% to 98% (to between 10% and 12% of land area versus less than 6% in ) by , . The depth to the water table can change (rise or fall) depending on the time of year. During the late winter and spring when accumulated snow starts to melt and spring rainfall is plentiful, water on the surface infiltrates into the ground and the water table rises. When water-loving plants start to grow again in the spring and precipitation gives way to hot, dry summers, the.


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Effect of heavy late-fall precipitation on runoff from a chaparral watershed by Paul A. Ingebo Download PDF EPUB FB2

Effect of heavy late-fall precipitation on runoff from a chaparral watershed (Research note RM) [Ingebo, Paul A] on FREE shipping on qualifying offers. Effect of heavy late-fall precipitation on runoff from a chaparral watershed (Research note RM)Author: Paul A Ingebo.

Part National Engineering Handbook Estimation of Direct Runoff from Storm Rainfall Chapter 10 10iv (VI-NEH, July ) Figure 103 Influence of 5-day antecedent precipitation on S 107 in Watershed 2, Treynor, Iowa. Precipitation varies from year to year and over decades, and changes in amount, intensity, frequency, and type (e.

snow vs rain) affect the environment and society. Steady moderate rains soak into the soil and benet plants, while the same rainfall amounts in a short period of time may cause local ooding and runoff, leaving soils much. Excessive precipitation can also degrade water quality, harming human health and ecosystems.

Stormwater runoff, which often includes pollutants like heavy metals, pesticides, nitrogen, and Effect of heavy late-fall precipitation on runoff from a chaparral watershed book, can end up in lakes, streams, and bays, damaging aquatic ecosystems and lowering water quality for human ted Reading Time: 4 mins.

- - International Journal of Sediment Research, Vol. 24, No. 3,pp. International Journal of Sediment Research 24 () Effects of precipitation and landuse on runoff during the past 50 years in a typical watershed in Loess Plateau, China Huaxing BI 1, Bin LIU 2, Jie WU 3, Lei YUN 3, Zhihan CHEN 2 and Zhewei CUI 3 Abstract In the past century, great progress Cited by:   Snow or ice induced discharge still dominated a large proportion of the total runoff in summer, and precipitation became the main source for runoff yield in August and September (Zhu et al.

). As for the middle reach of the river, runoff discharge generally increased from to Volume 2 (Technical Handbook) Georgia Stormwater Management Manual METHODS FOR ESTIMATING STORMWATER RUNOFF Introduction to Hydrologic Methods Hydrology deals with estimating peak flows, volumes, and time distributions of.

To quantify peak runoff dischargeis examined in Figure 1. The simulation of above equation is quoted from the following; Fig. (1) Relationship of rainfall intensity to runoff for an impervious drainage basin according to the Rational Method. The total volume of runoff equals the area under the graph of runoff.

Sir Binnie suggested runoff as a percentage of total annual precipitation by observing rivers in Madhya Pradesh, India, as follows: The observations were based on areas that were not having heavy rainfall but were having a precipitation up to mm.

Hence, these percentages are not applicable for high-rainfall areas. Rainfall-Runoff. the fraction of precipitation that appears as runoff, is dependent upon soil moisture content.

Soil moisture content needs to exceed a threshold before any significant runoff occurs. This threshold behavior often is demonstrated with runoff being more tightly related to depth to groundwater near the stream than further up a hillslope.

60 HYDROLOGIC EFFECTS OF A CHANGING FOREST LANDSCAPE (b) (c) FIGURE (a) Potential annual water yield (precipitation minus potential evapotranspira- tion, P â PET) in millimeters for the United States, and mean monthly precipitation, tem- perature, and discharge at four small watershed sites in the Northwest, Northeast, Rocky Mountains, and.

When more moisture-laden air moves over land or converges into a storm system, it can produce more intense precipitation-for example, heavier rain and snow storms.

1 The potential impacts of heavy precipitation include crop damage, soil erosion, and an increase in flood risk due to heavy rains (see the River Flooding indicator)-which in turn can lead to injuries, drownings, and other flooding-related effects on health.

2 In addition, runoff from precipitation. The precipitation elasticity of runoff, defined as the percentage change in mean annual runoff for a given percentage change in mean annual precipitation, has been widely used as a simple rule of thumb for estimating runoff sensitivity to changes in precipitation.

Winter precipitation varied from percent of average in to 66 percent of average in Summer precipitation during was percent of average, but only 48 percent in Runoff Streamflow averaged one inch on watershed B and inches watershed C from to A sample example for computing the weighted runoff coefficient is shown as under Let, a watershed has been divided into five sub parts on the basis of its soil types and land use, having the area a 1, a 2, a 3, a 4 and a 5, with the values of runoff coefficient c 1, c 2, c 3, c 4 and c 5, respectively.

Fekete et al.), there is no stud y yet indicating the spatial relationship between precipitation and runoff within all Africa n basins and countries. In this context, current study analyzed the precipitation -runoff relationship, using an indicative runoff coefficient within 25.

Precipitation Extremes: Heavy Rainfall, Flooding, and Droughts. The frequency of heavy precipitation events has already increased for the nation as a whole, and is projected to increase in all U. regions. Increases in both extreme precipitation and total precipitation have contributed to increases in severe flooding events in certain regions.

relationships of rainfall. Precipitation data from the Rainfall Frequency Atlas of the Midwest (Huff and Angel ) shall be used for all runoff computations, as summarized in Table RO For event durations that fall between values listed in the table, the user should use linear interpolation to determine the appropriate depth of precipitation.

late fall and winter and base flow is poorly sustained. In the Klamath Mountains subregion a large part of the area is above 5, feet in altitude. Much of the winter precipitation is therefore stored as snow, and in ad­ dition to the storm runoff in winter, a large amount of snowmelt runoff occurs in late.

Science Test - of the Earth's water is of the Earth's water is cool phases - increased pressure difference across equatorial Pacific, stronger trade wind, stronger upwelling in eastern Pacific, shallower thermocline, cooler than normal seawater, higher biological productivity.

Chaparral is a dominant vegetation type in the California Floristic Province, an area encompassing most of the nondesert areas of. California, as well as northern Baja California and southern. Heavy precipitation days are increasing even in pronounced effect on land precipitation and runoff (σ).

Ocean precipitation was also slightly below normal, and the global values are lowest on record. Drought and heat waves especially in the fall and spring. Area of watershed is km 2. Annual precipitation in the watershed area is 10 9. Runoff 12, m 3 (given) Area 10 6 m 2. The height of capillary rise in a tube is largely an effect of the surface tension between air; and water.

Addition of solute to the water has little effect on the surface layer of water molecules except at. (5 ratings) Part II: 1. Evapotranspiration, Infiltration, and runoff are three main processes by which rain must go. In the First Scenario, runoff is the smallest process because the land was relatively flat.

In the second scenario, infiltration was less because. View the. dry ground. However, the rate of precipitation may temporarily exceed the rate of infiltration. For example, during heavy precipita-tion, water falls too quickly to soak into the ground and becomes runoff.

Thus, a gentle, long-lasting rainfall is more beneficial to plants and causes less erosion by runoff than a torrential downpour. Rainfall and runoff data from storms during the summers of 84 were evaluated to characterize storm runoff volumes (SF) and peak flows (QP) for 13 small watersheds in the Blue Mountains.

The amount of surface runoff which is the hatched area for each stream rise is computed first, then the average infiltration capacity during a storm is computed by trial by finding the value which makes the precipitation excess, Pe on the rain intensity diagram.

to the surface runoff, after taking into consideration retention and runoff. Contributing Portion of a watershed (McNamara et al.). In another study, the ratio of total runoff to precipitation was called conversion efficiency (Burch et al.).

As can be seen from the compilation above, many different names exist for the same parameter. This is likely to cause confusion and make inter-comparison of. Estimate the peak rate of runoff for a 10 year frequency from a watershed of 25 hectares, having 15 hectares under cultivation (C ), 5 hectares under forests (C ) and 5 hectares under grass cover (C ).

There is fall of 5 meters in a distance of meters. Precipitation and the Water Cycle. Precipitation is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail. It is the primary connection in the water cycle that provides for the delivery of atmospheric water to the Earth.

Most precipitation falls as rain. Increased temperatures generally have a negative impact on water quality in lakes and rivers, typically by stimulating growth of nuisance algae. Changes in heavy precipitation, runoff, and stream flow can also be expected to have an impact on a diverse set of water quality variables.

Zarriello, P.and Bent, G.A precipitation-runoff model for the analysis of the effects of water withdrawals and land-use change on streamflow in the UsquepaugQueen River Basin, Rhode Island: U.

Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report75 p. The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes Ice Caps and Glaciers (Not available for humans) Subsurface Water (soil, groundwater) Surface Water (rivers, freshwater lakes) Atmosphere If all land were flat, the oceans would cover it to a depth of 3 km If all atmospheric water were precipitated, it would cover.

A stochastic precipitation-runoff modeling is used to estimate a cold and warm- seasons water yield from a ponderosa pine forested watershed in the north-central Arizona. The model consists of two parts namely, simulation of the temporal and spatial distribution.

the runoff coefficient is adjusted with a frequency coefficient (Cf) for the 25 year through nor do they consider how much rain fell before the period in question.

2) A 20 increase or decrease in the value of C has a similar effect as changing a 5 year recurrence interval to a 15 year or a 2 year interval, respectively. that there is a 40 chance of rain this afternoon, then there is a 40 chance of rain at any point in the county from noon to 6 p.

local time. This point probability of precipitation is predetermined and arrived at by the forecaster by multiplying two factors: Forecaster certainty that precipitation will form or. Summer repellency levels 40 at the 2 cm and 4 cm depths in both the chaparral and grass watersheds could help generate overland flow during the first fall and winter rain events.

Woods et al. () suggested a threshold ranging from 35 to 75at which water repellency can be spatially contiguous and able to instigate overland flow. runoff and the ratio between runoff and rainfall, known as the runoff ratio. These parameters reflect natural climate, weather, and landscape variat ions that occur across the state, and the effects of human alterations.

Precipitation. The State Climatology Office supplied monthly precipitation data by watershed. This data is derived from the. Key Finding 2. Heavy precipitation events in most parts of the United States have increased in both intensity and frequency since (high confidence).

There are important regional differences in trends, with the largest increases occurring in the northeastern United States (high confidence). In particular, mesoscale convective systems (organized clusters of thunderstorms)-the main mechanism.

Rain and rainfall. See also what's at Wikipedia, your library, or elsewhere. Broader term: Precipitation (Meteorology) Narrower terms: Rain and rainfall -- Early works to ; Rain and rainfall -- Great Plains. moisture fall on the surface.

The presence of ice pellets at the surface is evidence that there 1. are thunderstorms in the area. 2. has been cold frontal passage. 3. is a temperature inversion with freezing rain at a higher altitude. What measurement can be used to determine the stability of the atmosphere?

1. Actual lapse rate. 2. Atmospheric. The Add Data box will display. With your cursor in the Range: box, immediately select column E by clicking on the column heading.

The data will populate the graph. Note: you will now have two columns of data, one red and one blue. The chart will appear very crowded due to the amount of data, and the blue (precipitation) data will be difficult to see until completely formatted. Mediterranean climate ecosystems are among the most fire-prone in the world; however, little is known about the effects of fire on mediterranean streams (med-streams).

Fire impacts on med-streams are associated with increased runoff and erosion from severely burned landscapes during storms, particularly the first intense rains. Increased inputs of water, solutes, nutrients, sediment.